Women Astronomers Shine In &#039The Glass Universe&#039

The Glass Universe

Dava Sobel is as adept at spotting promising subject matter as the extraordinary women astronomers she writes about in The Glass Universe have been at spotting variable stars. By translating complicated data into manageable bites sweetened with human interest stories, Sobel tends to make hard science palatable for the basic audience. Even more than her 1999 book Galileo’s Daughter, this new perform highlights women’s typically below-appreciated role in the history of science.

The ladies who worked at the Harvard College Observatory in the late 19th and early 20th centuries have been not initially named astronomers it took decades for their “critical leaps in celestial understanding” to earn them that designation. They had been assistants, or human “computers” — math whizzes, devoted stargazers, and later physics and astronomy majors (and PhD’s) who studied, compared, classified and catalogued data about stars that had been photographed by guys on thousands of glass plates. “The work,” Sobel writes in her eye-opening chronicle, “demanded each scrupulous attention to detail and a big capacity for tedium.”

But, as Sobel points out, these “prepared slaves to routine” had been fortunate to have the work when possibilities in science have been uncommon for females. They had been also fortunate to toil below the aegis of two forward-pondering men, Edward Pickering and Harlow Shapley, whose successive directorships of the Observatory spanned the years from 1877 to 1952. Their pioneering efforts in astronomy integrated the creation of analysis grants and academic fellowships especially for women — which, along with the Observatory’s groundbreaking function in photographing and studying stellar spectra, benefited from the patronage of two widowed heiresses, Anna Palmer Draper and Catherine Wolfe Bruce.

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Sobel lucidly captures the intricate, interdependent constellation of folks it took to unlock mysteries of the stars.

Sobel lucidly captures the intricate, interdependent constellation of people it took to unlock mysteries of the stars, such as their chemical composition and their distances across space. Pickering and Shapley come across as smart, diligent, and decent — two scientists with a firm commitment to collaborative research, documentation over theorizing, the free sharing of details, and an insistence on crediting the tough-operating girls who made so several discoveries that paved the way for contemporary astrophysics.

As for the ladies — some of whose names are nevertheless respected in the field — their fortitude and devotion are practically nothing brief of amazing. In the early years, they were married to their perform, but after the Depression, a lot of balanced marriage and children with six-day weeks at the Observatory.

Williamina Fleming, a teacher in her native Scotland, was initial hired as a maid to the Pickerings right after her husband disappeared, leaving her in a “delicate situation.” Luckily, they recognized her skills. Over decades, she classified a lot more than ten,000 stars using a scheme she devised, discovered ten novae (new stars) and far more than 300 variable stars. In 1899, at age 42, at Pickering’s urging, she became the very first woman to hold an official title at Harvard University when she was named Curator of Astronomical Photographs. However in her journal, she noted that her annual salary of $ 1500 fell far brief of men’s $ 2500. “And this is deemed an enlightened age!” Fleming wrote.

Sobel doesn’t make a point of it, but Harvard University’s track record concerning women in science was not stellar even just before 2005, when then-President Lawrence Summers controversially attributed the under-representation of female scientists at elite universities to innate differences amongst the sexes. Despite Shapley’s repeated petitions, Annie Jump Cannon, a Wellesley graduate who won worldwide acclaim for her revised classification scheme (which is nevertheless in use nowadays) wasn’t granted an official title at Harvard until 1938, just three years before her death.

Similarly, Harvard president Abbot Lawrence Lowell repeatedly declined to name Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin to the faculty, regardless of her groundbreaking 1925 dissertation, which earned her the 1st PhD. in astronomy Harvard awarded to a woman. (It posited the similarities of stars’ chemical composition — largely hydrogen — regardless of varied temperatures.) She lastly became the first female complete professor at Harvard in 1956, and in 1958, was named the Phillips Professor of Astronomy. But, Sobel writes, “Even then her salary of $ 14,000 a year, even though larger than her husband’s, remained far beneath that of her male peers.”

Of necessity, Sobel strives to convey the nature of the astronomers’ discoveries and achievements. And by and massive she does, with admirable clarity. The truth that I located my eyes glazing more than anytime she gets into the nitty-gritty of the women’s classification systems heightened my respect for their ability to focus painstakingly on such details for decades on finish. When it comes to these ladies — their pluck, persistence, insights and eventual recognition — The Glass Universe positively glows.

Arts &amp Life : NPR


In Orlando, A &#039Modest Style&#039 Boutique For Hijabi Women

Verona is a one particular-quit shop for original and stylish conservation put on, filling a long-term void in the fashion sector. Lisa Vogl/Verona Collection hide caption

toggle caption Lisa Vogl/Verona Collection

At a single finish of Orlando’s Style Square mall, amongst a karate shop and a comic book emporium, is a clothing boutique named Verona. It’s stocked with lengthy-sleeved caftans, complete-length slit-much less skirts, and a lot more than 300 varieties of hijabs. Inside, women peruse via racks of garments they when could only uncover on the web.

“It really is good to have some thing like Verona establish a retailer in a mall because it’s kinda like ‘Hey, I’m out right here.’ You are being represented as American,” says Feena Quazi Abbati, sauntering from rack to rack in an orange hijab with a floral best and tapered khaki pants.

Abbati, an Orlando native of Pakistani descent, grew up dressing conservatively, a symbol she and other Muslim women attribute to spiritual growth and modesty. For years, she bought clothes at H&ampM, Target and Forever 21 that she could layer together. But she says obtaining access to a one-quit shop for original and stylish conservative put on — for work, leisure, and fitness — is a sign of progress.

“Men and women have this notion that a Muslim is an individual who wears black and has a scarf on. You cannot define what a Muslim looks like. You have Indonesians who are Muslim. You have Italians who are Muslim. You have Hispanics. Some girls have afros. Some girls are blond. Some girls choose to cover their hair and some girls cover their face. It’s going to open the door for far more chance just to show men and women, ‘Hey, this is what Muslims are like.’ “

Verona co-founder Lisa Vogl and her partners initial launched Verona as an on the internet boutique to fill a void in the fashion sector for a demographic in need to have of special clothing. Taslim Rajabali/Verona Collection hide caption

toggle caption Taslim Rajabali/Verona Collection

Verona co-founder Lisa Vogl, a 34-year-old Muslim convert, and her partners very first launched Verona as an online boutique to fill a void in the style sector for a demographic in want of special clothes. Vogl remembers starting out with 1 dress, two skirts, and four hijabs. Now, with a brick-and-mortar shop that opened in May possibly, her group has a steady flow of orders from all components of the planet for high waist, floor length skirts, maxi cardigans and, of course, hijabs.

“It really is just exciting to see the concept in your head come into real life. We’re excited to show Islam in a different light and we’re excited to show that we’re just as integrated and fashionable and trendy as everyone else.”

Clientele have driven hours to come to the store to attempt on clothing. Others drop by on holiday. But in the wake of the June 12 Pulse nightclub shootings that left 49 individuals dead at the hands of a Muslim-American, Vogl says the retailer has emerged as a spot for dialogue.

“I’ve had guys come in and sit and ask me inquiries about how we dress. It offers us a likelihood to explain who we are, what we think, and what we’re about. And that is really an atmosphere that we want to provide. It really is more than style and entertaining clothes. It really is a way to really make adjust.”

Shortly after reports had spread that the man behind the Pulse shootings, Omar Mateen, was Muslim, Vogl and her partners closed their store for their employees’ safety. The hijab has become a loaded symbol that has put her and other hijabi ladies at risk for backlash. The Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR), a civil rights advocacy group, reported many incidents across the country in which women have been harassed for wearing the hijab.

Vogl feels that now, a lot more than ever, folks are misunderstanding Islam. She blames the media for the stigma. That, and lack of interaction between Muslims and non-Muslims. She hopes her shop can assist alter that.

“This is front in-your-face that we are specifically not who you think we are. It is a hijabi Muslim-run, females-run enterprise. We are powerful, independent, business-educated girls,” she says.

Perceptions aside, pure numbers show the Islamic fashion industry is responding to a real require. Haroon Latif heads research for Dinar Standard, a international firm that looks at how the world’s expanding Muslim population is driving particular industries, like modest put on.

In a current report, Dinar Common located that Muslims spent an estimated $ 244 billion in clothes final year. Demand for modest wear is up — and mainstream businesses are responding. Lisa Vogl/Verona Collection hide caption

toggle caption Lisa Vogl/Verona Collection

“There’s three to five million Muslims in the U.S.,” says Latif. “And that is anticipated to double by 2050. Muslim customers are a customer group that has their own values and as those values deepen, they begin to demand extremely distinctive solutions. Modest style is just a subset of that.”

In a recent report, his firm identified that Muslims about the planet spent an estimated $ 244 billion in clothing final year. He predicts spending to reach much more than $ 300 billion by 2020. Demand for modest put on is up — and mainstream organizations are responding.

Latif lists H&ampM and Dolce &amp Gabbana as prime examples. “In the U.K. in certain, Marks &amp Spencer is one of the major retailers and they have just launched a burkini brand,” he says.

Almost 150 modest-put on brands exist now, according to marketplace researchers. Most brands are much less than 5 years old. Their target demographic is Muslim women and others seeking for conservative fashion.

“They’re truly seeing the purchasing energy and how big the community is here and we’re right here like everybody else,” says Nadine Abu-Jabara, New Orleans native and co-owner of Verona. “We need to have garments and we want laptops from Very best Purchase. We are everybody else. We just like to wear a scarf on our head at times. Or all the time.”

A model poses in some of the modest wear offered at Verona. Lisa Vogl/Verona Collection hide caption

toggle caption Lisa Vogl/Verona Collection

Arts &amp Life : NPR


Selena Gomez Wore A lot more Outfits In 24 Hours Than Most Men and women Put on In A Week

Selena Gomez is in Paris for Style Week, and when she’s not sitting in the front row at shows, she’s changing outfits. Like, so several outfits — she’s only been there 1 day, and she’s already wowed us in five completely various appears.

Thanks, Selena by the time Style Week ends, we’ll have enough outfit inspo to last us for months. See all Selena’s looks (so far) below.

  1. As previously discussed, Selena arrived in Paris in a sweatsuit. Although it may look like some thing you’d put on on a plane, I assure you, it is not — it’s a cool $ 1,400, OK??

  2. Following her arrival, Selena changed into a bodysuit that was held with each other by nothing at all but string, a denim miniskirt, and open-toe, thigh-high boots. This is one of two denim skirts she wore in 24 hours, just so you know.

  3. From there, she went ultra glam in a Ronald van der Kemp dress. She obviously knew she looked 🔥, so she kept her sunglasses on, even though it was nighttime.

  4. For the Louis Vuitton show, Selena wore her second denim skirt of the trip. Selena, I’m just not positive we’re prepared for the return of jean skirts. I’M JUST NOT Certain.

  5. Later in the day, Selena changed into yet another Louis Vuitton outfit — no denim skirt in sight, thankfully.


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In &#039Carol,&#039 two Women Leap Into An Unlikely Really like Affair

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Rooney Mara and Cate Blanchett (right) begin a love affair after meeting in a department store in Carol.

Rooney Mara and Cate Blanchett (proper) commence a adore affair soon after meeting in a division store in Carol. Weinstein Co. hide caption

toggle caption Weinstein Co.

Director Todd Haynes believes adore can blossom in the most improbable situations. Take his new movie, Carol. The film tells the story of an affair amongst the title character, a married 1950s socialite (played by Cate Blanchett), and Therese, an aspiring young photographer (played by Rooney Mara) who is functioning in the toy section of a New York City department retailer. They meet even though Carol is buying a Christmas present for her daughter.

Haynes tells Fresh Air’s Terry Gross that the connection the girls make in the shop is a “curious leap” that requires them each “out of their worlds.”

“I think there is anything so lovely about that becoming the way really like usually starts — in the most irrational, inexplicable sort of situations where you place your self out there and you hold going, ‘What am I undertaking? Why am I here?’ ” Haynes says. “But you preserve going back. Each girls do it.”

Phyllis Nagy adapted the screenplay for Carol from the Patricia Highsmith novel The Value of Salt. In her early 20s, Nagy met and befriended Highsmith, a lesbian writer who spent significantly of her adult life in Europe. Nagy says the story is extremely forward thinking, specially contemplating it was originally published in 1952.

“As far as I’m aware, it was the initial relatively mainstream lesbian novel to be published that integrated not only a relatively content ending, but it did not include the death of 1 of its lesbian heroines, or 1 of them going to an insane asylum or nunnery,” Nagy says.

Nagy notes that Highsmith initially published The Value of Salt below a pseudonym, perhaps due to the fact the novel was so private in nature. “It was difficult for her to take ownership of it as a writer for numerous years,” Nagy says. “I was never ever certain if that meant she just did not like it, or if she was so personally attached to the novel that she could not afford psychically, or psychologically, to claim ownership of it till the late ’80s.”


Interview Highlights

On Therese and Carol

Nagy: Therese Belivet … is at a stage in her life, early 20s, where she is searching for the keys to her future. She’s a bit reticent she’s immensely curious, a bit like a sponge, and responds to everything with an alarming honesty — much like Pat Highsmith herself, whom I knew. So Therese is her alter ego.

Carol Aird is older, married … and she is a melancholy creature. She is not a content-go-lucky socialite. The situations of her life do not sit properly with her, or comfortably.

Patricia Highsmith initially published her novel The Price of Salt under the pseudonym &quotClaire Morgan.&quot

Patricia Highsmith initially published her novel The Value of Salt below the pseudonym “Claire Morgan.” Anonymous/AP hide caption

toggle caption Anonymous/AP

On the components of Highsmith’s novel that Nagy most wanted to maintain in the screen adaptation

Nagy: Two issues. A single was the radical way in which Patricia Highsmith addressed the sexuality of the protagonists in the novel as organic, as breathing — no certain believed given to what sexuality means to these women — but also an insistence on ignoring, much more or significantly less, the naysayers, which was one more aspect of the novel that was profoundly radical. The second part of the factors that I feel makes the novel actually resonate even today is Highsmith’s specific view of motherhood and what tends to make a excellent mother.

On how The Cost of Salt was received compared to Highsmith’s other novels

Nagy: I think that Highsmith was very surprised by the effect that The Cost of Salt had on publication. And even in the years, four or five years, following its publication, she would get the most wonderful letters from individuals — of course, they had been addressed to [her pseudonym,] Claire Morgan — talking about how the book had touched them profoundly, changed their lives. She wasn’t utilised to that. Surely no 1 was going to say that [her 1950 book] Strangers on a Train changed their lives in really that way, or even [her 1955 book] The Talented Mr. Ripley.

On what Nagy learned from Highsmith about getting a lesbian in the ’50s

Nagy: I feel what I learned from Pat about getting gay in the ’50s, and from pals of hers that she introduced me to, it was a window on a really specific subset of lesbians. Pat herself, I always like to say, was like the studio boss of lesbians in that she was appropriate there chasing women about couches and throwing them down onto beds. … I thought at first that she was probably just pumping up her own reputation as a lesbian stud, but, in reality, her peers — the girls that she chased, numerous of whom truly did remain friendly with her — confirmed those stories. And these females had been all vaguely of the Carol Aird set.

So I felt as if I knew specifically who Carol Aird was. … I consider the married girls suited Patricia Highsmith, who famously did not like to reside with men and women or have that kind of attachment that most affordable folks soon after a time anticipate. … With married girls, that was hardly ever attainable. So they have been, I’d say, the Euro-[equivalent] of wealthy, suburban, mostly married and secretive ladies who most likely, in 1952, are on prototypes of antidepressants and drank a lot and smoked a lot, like Highsmith herself.

On Highsmith trying to date men at a single point

Director Todd Haynes works with actress Cate Blanchett on the set of Carol.

Director Todd Haynes functions with actress Cate Blanchett on the set of Carol. Weinstein Co. hide caption

toggle caption Weinstein Co.

Nagy: The unwholesome truth about Pat is she was a lesbian who did not quite a lot get pleasure from becoming about other ladies. So the attempt to dabble with a single man seriously, and probably a few other folks along the way, was to just see if she could be into guys in that way, since she so significantly much more preferred their company. Pat would’ve been a excellent member of [Mad Men’s agency] Sterling-Cooper … and genuinely, I feel, that was the formative psychological trait … that she actually did not like women. She liked to have sex with them and she liked them to go home and shut up, but she much preferred the business of males.

On regardless of whether Haynes had reservations about getting a man directing a film about lesbians

Haynes: No, I did not. Or at least, what I felt was this was a tremendous, gorgeous chance for me to discover this story as a gay man and as somebody who has been in really like and who’s been in Therese’s shoes. … I felt like I had that frequent and universal and poignant knowledge in my personal history and my personal memory and that is what’s so unsentimentally and beautifully described in the novel to commence with. … And I have to say, so several of my dearest, closest buddies in the globe are gay females and this, in numerous ways, was sort of like: “This one’s for all these [girls] who’ve meant so much in my life.”

Arts &amp Life : NPR